# 7-社会网络分析.ppt

,Web Mining(7),杨光飞 系统工程研究所 大连理工大学 gfyang@dlut.edu.cn,Social Network Analysis,2,Road map,Introduction Social network analysis Co-citation and bibliographic coupling PageRank HITS Summary,,3,Introduction,Early search engines mainly compare content similarity of the query and the indexed pages. I.e., They use information retrieval methods, cosine, TF-IDF, . From 1996, it became clear that content similarity alone was no longer sufficient. The number of pages grew rapidly in the mid-late 1990’s. Try “classification technique”, Google estimates: 10 million relevant pages. How to choose only 30-40 pages and rank them suitably to present to the user? Content similarity is easily spammed垃圾. A page owner can repeat some words and add many related words to boost the rankings of his pages and/or to make the pages relevant to a large number of queries.,,4,Introduction (cont …),Starting around 1996, researchers began to work on the problem. They resort to采取 hyperlinks. In Feb, 1997, Yanhong Li李彦宏(Robin Li), Scotch Plains, NJ, filed a hyperlink based search patent. The method uses words in anchor text of hyperlinks. Web pages on the other hand are connected through hyperlinks, which carry important information. Some hyperlinks: organize information at the same site. Other hyperlinks: point to pages from other Web sites. Such out-going hyperlinks often indicate an implicit conveyance运输 of authority to the pages being pointed to. Those pages that are pointed to by many other pages are likely to contain authoritative information.,,5,Introduction (cont …),During 1997-1998, two most influential hyperlink based search algorithms PageRank and HITS were reported. Both algorithms are related to social networks. They exploit the hyperlinks of the Web to rank pages according to their levels of “prestige” or “authority”. HITS: Jon Kleinberg (Cornel University), at Ninth Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, January 1998 PageRank: Sergey Brin and Larry Page, PhD students from Stanford University, at Seventh International World Wide Web Conference (WWW7) in April, 1998. PageRank powers the Google search engine.,,6,Introduction (cont …),Apart from search ranking, hyperlinks are also useful for finding Web communities. A Web community is a cluster of densely linked pages representing a group of people with a special interest. Beyond explicit hyperlinks on the Web, links in other contexts are useful too, e.g., for discovering communities of named entities (e.g., people and organizations) in free text documents, and for analyzing social phenomena in emails,,7,Road map,Introduction Social network analysis Co-citation and bibliographic coupling PageRank HITS Summary,,8,Social network analysis,Social network is the study of social entities (people in an organization, called actors参与者), and their interactions and relationships. The interactions and relationships can be represented with a network or graph, each vertex (or node) represents an actor and each link represents a relationship. From the network, we can study the properties of its structure, and the role, position and prestige威望 of each social actor. We can also find various kinds of sub-graphs, e.g., communities formed by groups of actors.,,9,Social network and the Web,Social network analysis is useful for the Web because the Web is essentially a virtual society, and thus a virtual social network, Each page: a social actor and each hyperlink: a relationship. Many results from social network can be adapted and extended for use in the Web context. We study two types of social network analysis, centrality中心性 and prestige权威性, which are closely related to hyperlink analysis and search on the Web.,,10,Centrality,Important or prominent显著的 actors are those that are linked or involved with other actors extensively广泛地. A person with extensive contacts (links) or communications with many other people in the organization is considered more important than a person with relatively fewer contacts. The links can also be called ties连接. A central actor中心参与者 is one involved in many ties.,,11,Degree Centrality,,,12,Closeness Centrality接近中心性,,13,Betweenness Centrality中介中心性,If two non-adjacent不相邻 actors j and k want to interact and actor i is on the path between j and k, then i may have some control over the interactions between j and k. Betweenness measures this control of i over other pairs of actors. Thus, if i is on the paths of many such interactions, then i is an important actor.,,14,Betweenness Centrality (cont …),Undirected graph: Let pjk be the number of shortest paths between actor j and actor k. The betweenness of an actor i is defined as the number of shortest paths that pass i (pjk(i)) normalized by the total number of shortest paths.,,(4),,15,Betweenness Centrality (cont …),,16,Prestige,Prestige is a more refined measure of prominence of an actor than centrality. Distinguish: ties sent (out-links) and ties received (in-links). A prestigious actor is one who is object of extensive ties as a recipient. To compute the prestige: we use only in-links. Difference between centrality and prestige: centrality focuses on out-links prestige focuses on in-links. We study three prestige measures. Rank prestige forms the basis of most Web page link analysis algorithms, including PageRank and HITS.,,17,Degree prestige,,18,Proximity prestige,The degree index of prestige of an actor i only considers the actors that are adjacent to i. The proximity prestige generalizes it by considering both the actors directly and indirectly linked to actor i. We consider every actor j that can reach i. Let Ii be the set of actors that can reach actor i. The proximity is defined as closeness or distance of other actors to i. Let d(j, i) denote the distance from actor j to actor i.,,19,Proximity prestige (cont …),,20,Rank prestige,In the previous two prestige measures, an important factor is considered, the prominence of individual actors who do the “voting” In the real world, a person i chosen by an important person is more prestigious than chosen by a less important person. For example, if a company CEO votes for a person is much more important than a worker votes for the person. If one’s circle of influence is full of prestigious actors, then one’s own prestige is also high. Thus one’s prestige is affected by the ranks or statuses of the involved actors.,,21,Rank prestige (cont …),Based on this intuition, the rank prestige PR(i) is define as a linear combination of links that point to i:,,,22,Road map,Introduction Social network analysis Co-citation and bibliographic coupling PageRank HITS Summary,,23,Co-citation and Bibliographic Coupling,Another area of research concerned with links is citation analysis of scholarly publications. A scholarly publication cites related prior work to acknowledge the origins of some ideas and to compare the new proposal with existing work. When a paper cites another paper, a relationship is established between the publications. Citation analysis uses these relationships (links) to perform various types of analysis. We discuss two types of citation analysis, co-citation and bibliographic coupling. The HITS algorithm is related to these two types of analysis.,,24,Co-citation,If papers i and j are both cited by paper k, then they may be related in some sense to one another. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is.,,25,Co-citation,Let L be the citation matrix. Each cell of the matrix is defined as follows: Lij = 1 if paper i cites paper j, and 0 otherwise. Co-citation (denoted by Cij) is a similarity measure defined as the number of papers that co-cite i and j, Cii is naturally the number of papers that cite i. A square matrix C can be formed with Cij, and it is called the co-citation matrix.,,,26,Bibliographic coupling,Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle. Bibliographic coupling links papers that cite the same articles if papers i and j both cite paper k, they may be related. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their similarity is.,,27,Bibliographic coupling (cont …),,28,Road map,Introduction Social network analysis Co-citation and bibliographic coupling PageRank HITS Summary,,29,PageRank,The year 1998 was an eventful year for Web link analysis models. Both the PageRank and HITS algorithms were reported in that year. The connections between PageRank and HITS are quite striking. Since that eventful year, PageRank has emerged as the dominant link analysis model, due to its query-independence, its ability to combat spamming, and Google’s huge business success.,,30,PageRank: the intuitive idea,PageRank relies on the democratic nature of the Web by using its vast link structure as an indicator of an individual page s value or quality. PageRank interprets a hyperlink from page x to page y as a vote, by page x, for page y. However, PageRank looks at more than the sheer number of votes; it also analyzes the page that casts the vote. Votes casted by “important” pages weigh more heavily and help to make other pages more “important.“ This is exactly the idea of rank prestige in social network.,,31,More specifically,A hyperlink from a page to another page is an implicit conveyance of authority to the target page. The more in-links that a page i receives, the more prestige the page i has. Pages that point to page i also have their own prestige scores. A page of a higher prestige pointing to i is more important than a page of a lower prestige pointing to i. In other words, a page is important if it is pointed to by other important pages.,,32,PageRank algorithm,According to rank prestige, the importance of page i (i’s PageRank score) is the sum of the PageRank scores of all pages that point to i. Since a page may point to many other pages, its prestige score should be shared. The Web as a directed graph G = (V, E). Let the total number of pages be n. The PageRank score of the page i (denoted by P(i)) is defined by:,,Oj is the number of out-link of j,,33,Matrix notation,We have a system of n linear equations with n unknowns. We can use a matrix to represent them. Let P be a n-dimensional column vector of PageRank values, i.e., P = (P(1), P(2), …, P(n))T. Let A be the adjacency matrix 邻接矩阵 of our graph withWe can write the n equations with (PageRank),,,,(14),(15),,34,Solve the PageRank equation,This is the characteristic equation特征方程 of the eigensystem特征系统, where the solution to P is an eigenvector特征向量 with the corresponding eigenvalue特征值 of 1. It turns out that if some conditions are satisfied, 1 is the largest eigenvalue and the PageRank vector P is the principal eigenvector主特征向量. A well known mathematical technique called power iteration幂迭代方法 can be used to find P. Problem: the above Equation does not quite suffice because the Web graph does not meet the conditions.,,,(15),,35,Using Markov chain,To introduce these conditions and the enhanced equation, let us derive the same Equation (15) based on the Markov chain. In the Markov chain, each Web page or node in the Web graph is regarded as a state. A hyperlink is a transition, which leads from one state to another state with a probability. This framework models Web surfing as a stochastic process. It models a Web surfer randomly surfing the Web as state transition.,,36,Random surfing,Recall we use Oi to denote the number of out-links of a node i. Each transition probability is 1/Oi if we assume the Web surfer will click the hyperlinks in the page i uniformly at random. The “back” button on the browser is not used and the surfer does not type in an URL.,,37,Transition probability matrix,Let A be the state transition probability matrix,,Aij represents the transition probability that the surfer in state i (page i) will move to state j (page j). Aij is defined exactly as in Equation (14).,,,38,Let us start,Given an initial probability distribution vector that a surfer is at each state (or page) p0 = (p0(1), p0(2), …, p0(n))T (a column vector) and an nn transition probability matrix A, we have If the matrix A satisfies Equation (17), we say that A is the stochastic matrix of a Markov chain.,,,(16),(17),,39,Back to the Markov chain,In a Markov chain, a question of common interest is: Given p0 at the beginning, what is the probability that m steps/transitions later the Markov chain will be at each state j? We determine the probability that the system (or the random surfer) is in state j after 1 step (1 transition) by using the following reasoning:,,(18),,40,State transition,,41,Stationary probability distribution,By a Theorem of the Markov chain, a finite Markov chain defined by the stochastic matrix A has a unique stationary probability distribution if A is irreducible不可约 and aperiodic非周期. The stationary probability distribution means that after a series of transitions pk will converge to a steady-state probability vector regardless of the choice of the initial probability vector p0, i.e.,,,(21),,42,PageRank again,When we reach the steady-state, we have pk = pk+1 =, and thus =AT. is the principal eigenvector of AT with eigenvalue of 1. In PageRank, is used as the PageRank vector P. We again obtain Equation (15), which is re-produced here as Equation (22):,,(22),,43,Is P = justified?,Using the stationary probability distribution as the PageRank vector is reasonable and quite intuitive because it reflects the long-run probabilities that a random surfer will visit the pages. A page has a high prestige if the probability of visiting it is high.,,44,Back to the Web graph,Now let us come back to the real Web context and see whether the above conditions are satisfied, i.e., whether A is a stochastic matrix and whether it is irreducible and aperiodic. None of them is satisfied. Hence, we need to extend the ideal-case Equation (22) to produce the “actual PageRank” model.,,45,A is a not stochastic matrix,A is the transition matrix of the Web graphIt does not satisfy equation (17)because many Web pages have no out-links, which are reflected in transition matrix A by some rows of complete 0’s. Such pages are called the dangling悬挂 pages (nodes).,,,,,46,An example Web hyperlink graph,,,47,Fix the problem: two possible ways,Remove those pages with no out-links during the PageRank computation as these pages do not affect the ranking of any other page directly. Add a complete set of outgoing links from each such page i to all the pages on the Web.,,Let us use the second way,,48,A is a not irreducible,Irreducible不可约 means that the Web graph G is strongly connected强连接. Definition: A directed graph G = (V, E) is strongly connected if and only if, for each pair of nodes u, v ∈ V, there is a path from u to v.任意两点连通 A general Web graph represented by A is not irreducible because for some pair of nodes u and v, there is no path from u to v. In our example, there is no directed path from nodes 3 to 4.,,49,A is a not aperiodic,A state i in a Markov chain being periodic周期性 means that there exists a directed cycle that the chain has to traverse. Definition: A state i is periodic with period k 1 if k is the smallest number such that all paths leading from state i back to state i have a length that is a multiple of k. If a state is not periodic (i.e., k = 1), it is aperiodic. A Markov chain is aperiodic if all states are aperiodic.,